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Summary of NERVE and MUSCLE PHYSIOLOGY

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ISBN: 9786059354684
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Basım Sayısı: 1
Sayfa Sayısı: 332 sayfa

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Contents

  • Chapter 1. OVERVIEW OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM (L. Pinar)
  •        Organization of the Central Nervous System....................................................... 4
  •        General Functions of the Main Parts of the Brain................................................ 4
  •        Cerebrum............................................................................................................... 4
  •        Brainstem............................................................................................................... 5
  •        Cerebellum............................................................................................................ 6
  •        Meninges (Meninx).............................................................................................. 6
  •        Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) .................................................................................... 6
  •        Blood Brain Barrier (BBB)..................................................................................... 6
  •        Cranial Nerves....................................................................................................... 7
  •        REFERENCES............................................................................................................... 9
  • Chapter 2. BIOELECTRIC POTENTIALS OF THE EXCITABLE CELL (L. Pinar)
  •        Resting Membrane Potential................................................................................. 13
  •        Generation of the resting membrane potential............................................ 14
  •        Individual Ions Involved in the Resting Membrane Potential..................... 15
  •        Nernst Potentials: Equilibrium Potentials of Ions.......................................... 15
  •        The Equilibrium (Nernst) Potential of Potassium.......................................... 16
  •        The Equilibrium (Nernst) Potential of Sodium............................................... 17
  •        Calculation of the Sum Effects of Several Permeable Ions on the
  •        Resting Membrane Potential: Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz Equation............... 18
  •        Gibbs Donnan Effect ......................................................................................... 18
  •        The Effects of Na-K ATPase on Membrane Potential................................... 20
  •        The Membrane of Excitable Cell...................................................................... 20
  •        Action Potential.................................................................................................. 22
  •        Investigation of Ion Channels: Voltage Clamp and Patch Clamp Techniques 26
  •        REFERENCES............................................................................................................ 27
  • Chapter 3. NERVE PHYSIOLOGY (L. Pinar)
  •        Glial Cells ................................................................................................................. 31
  •        Astrocytes............................................................................................................ 31
  •        Functions of Astrocytes..................................................................................... 32
  •        Oligodendrocytes............................................................................................... 32
  •        Schwann cells..................................................................................................... 33
  •        Microglia.............................................................................................................. 33
  •        Ependymal Cells................................................................................................. 33
  •        Neurons..................................................................................................................... 33
  •        The Functional and Structural Parts of a Typical Neuron............................. 33
  •        Myelinated and Unmyelinated Neurons........................................................ 35
  •        Distribution of Ion Channels in Neurons........................................................ 36
  •        Conduction of the Action Potential Along the Axons.................................. 37
  •        Orthodromic and Antidromic Impulse Conduction...................................... 39
  •        Mixed Nerves...................................................................................................... 39
  •        Nerve Fiber Types.............................................................................................. 40
  •        Transport of Proteins in the Axons ................................................................ 41
  •        Neurotrophic Factors......................................................................................... 41
  •        Degeneration and Regeneration of Nerve Fibers........................................ 42
  •        Demyelinating Diseases................................................................................... 43
  •        Effects of Changing Concentrations of Plasma Ions on the
  •        Excitability of Nerves......................................................................................... 43
  •        Rhythmicity of Some Excitable Tissues........................................................... 45
  •        Electrotonic Potentials, Local Response ........................................................ 45
  •        Clinical Aspects........................................................................................................ 46
  •        Channelopathies (Ion Channel Myopathies)................................................. 46
  •        REFERENCES............................................................................................................ 47
  • Chapter 4. MUSCLE PHYSIOLOGY (L. Pinar)
  •        Skeletal Muscle........................................................................................................ 51
  •        Morphology of Skeletal Muscle ....................................................................... 51
  •        Cross Striation..................................................................................................... 52
  •        Sarcolemma........................................................................................................ 54
  •        Sarcotubular System.......................................................................................... 54
  •        Contractile Proteins of Skeletal Muscle.......................................................... 55
  •        Thin filaments..................................................................................................... 55
  •        Thick Filaments .................................................................................................. 56
  •        Dystrophin-Glycoprotein Complex................................................................. 56
  •        Electrical Characteristics of Skeletal Muscles................................................. 57
  •        The Flux of Ions .................................................................................................. 57
  •        Contraction................................................................................................................ 58
  •        Muscle Twitch..................................................................................................... 58
  •        Molecular Basis of Contraction......................................................................... 58
  •        Excitation-Contraction Coupling...................................................................... 59
  •        Transmission of the Excitation to Contraction............................................... 60
  •        Sliding Mechanism............................................................................................. 60
  •        Relaxation............................................................................................................ 60
  •        Fatigue................................................................................................................. 61
  •        Rigor Complex ................................................................................................... 61
  •        Rigor Mortis......................................................................................................... 61
  •        The Length and Tension Relationship of Contraction.................................. 61
  •        Types of Excitation............................................................................................. 62
  •        Types of Contraction.......................................................................................... 62
  •        Energy Mechanism of Muscle Contraction........................................................ 63
  •        Muscle Fiber Types............................................................................................. 64
  •        Properties of Entire Muscles................................................................................. 65
  •        Motor Unit............................................................................................................ 65
  •        Grading of Muscular Activity............................................................................. 66
  •        Summation of the Contractions: Strengthening of the Muscle Twitches...... 67
  •        Temporal (Time-Related) Summation............................................................ 67
  •        Spatial Summation............................................................................................. 68
  •        Denervation Sensitivity of Skeletal Muscle, Denervation Potentials......... 68
  •        Diseases of Muscle ................................................................................................. 70
  •        Muscular Dystrophy........................................................................................... 70
  •        Channelopathies................................................................................................ 70
  •        Smooth Muscle......................................................................................................... 71
  •        REFERENCES............................................................................................................ 73
  • Chapter 5. EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY ( L. Pinar)
  •        Benefits of Regular (long-term) Aerobic Exercise............................................ 77
  •        Quantitative Values for Physical Capacities...................................................... 78
  •        Strength, Power and Endurance of the Muscles........................................... 78
  •        Energy Systems of Exercises............................................................................. 79
  •        Recovery of the Muscle Metabolic System after Exercise........................... 79
  •        Oxygen Debt....................................................................................................... 80
  •        Maximal Resistance Training............................................................................ 80
  •        Muscle Training for Hypertrophy and Strengthening .................................. 81
  •        Effects of the Exercise on the Respiratory System .......................................... 81
  •        Oxygen Consumption (VO2) ............................................................................ 82
  •        Effects of the Exercise on the Cardiovascular System .................................... 82
  •        Summary.............................................................................................................. 83
  •        Maximal Oxygen Consumption....................................................................... 84
  •        VO2 max Levels................................................................................................... 84
  •        Measurement of VO2 max....................................................................................... 84
  •        Submaximal Level of Exercises........................................................................ 85
  •        Uth-Sorenson-Overgaard-Pederson Estimation ........................................... 85
  •        Cooper Test......................................................................................................... 85
  •        6-Minute Walk Test ........................................................................................... 86
  •        Body Heat in Exercise............................................................................................. 86
  •        Heatstroke........................................................................................................... 86
  •        Doping Drugs...................................................................................................... 87
  •        REFERENCES............................................................................................................ 87
  • Chapter 6. SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION (L. Pinar)
  •        Types of Synapses................................................................................................... 91
  •        Morphology of Chemical Synapses................................................................. 92
  •        Presynaptic and Postsynaptic Structures........................................................ 93
  •        Fusion................................................................................................................... 94
  •        Divergence and Convergence......................................................................... 94
  •        Excitatory and Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials........................................... 94
  •        Excitatory Post Synaptic Potential ................................................................... 95
  •        Inhibitory Post Synaptic Potential.................................................................... 96
  •        Temporal and Spatial Summation.................................................................... 97
  •        Slow Post Synaptic Potentials........................................................................... 98
  •        Function of Dendrites........................................................................................ 98
  •        Inhibition and Facilitation at Synapses............................................................... 98
  •        Direct and Indirect Inhibitions.......................................................................... 98
  •        Presynaptic Inhibition and Facilitation.......................................................... 100
  •        Organization of Inhibitory Systems............................................................... 101
  •        Neuromuscular Transmission .......................................................................... 101
  •        Neuromuscular (or Myoneural) Junction..................................................... 101
  •        Drugs That Affect the Transition of Action Potential from Nerve to Muscle 104
  •        Blockers............................................................................................................. 104
  •        Drugs That Block Acetylcholinesterase........................................................ 104
  •        Clinical Aspects .................................................................................................... 105
  •        Myasthenia Gravis ........................................................................................... 105
  •        Lambert-Eaton Syndrome .............................................................................. 105
  •        Neurotransmitters................................................................................................. 106
  •        Neuromodulators............................................................................................. 106
  •        Receptors.......................................................................................................... 107
  •        Mechanism of Reuptake................................................................................. 108
  •        Monoamine Transmitters.................................................................................... 108
  •        Acetylcholine ................................................................................................... 108
  •        ACh Receptors.................................................................................................. 108
  •        Serotonin........................................................................................................... 109
  •        Serotonin Receptors........................................................................................ 109
  •        Histamine ......................................................................................................... 109
  •        Catecholamines .............................................................................................. 109
  •        Dopamine ........................................................................................................ 110
  •        Excitatory Amino Acids....................................................................................... 110
  •        Glutamate.......................................................................................................... 110
  •        Glutamate Receptors....................................................................................... 110
  •        Inhibitory Amino Acids....................................................................................... 111
  •        Glycine .............................................................................................................. 111
  •        GABA (Gamma Amino Butyric Acid)............................................................. 111
  •        GABA Receptors............................................................................................... 111
  •        Large Molecule Transmitters ............................................................................. 112
  •        Substance P....................................................................................................... 112
  •        Opioid Peptides................................................................................................ 112
  •        Clinical Aspects .................................................................................................... 112
  •        Excitotoxins....................................................................................................... 112
  •        Role of Serotonin in Mood and Behavior..................................................... 113
  •        Phenylketonuria............................................................................................... 113
  •        Schizophrenia .................................................................................................. 113
  •        REFERENCES.......................................................................................................... 113
  • Chapter 7. CUTANEOUS SENSES and PAIN (T. Yörükan)
  •        Introduction to the Special Senses..................................................................... 117
  •        Types of Sensation................................................................................................ 117
  •        Touch and Pressure......................................................................................... 117
  •        Vibration............................................................................................................ 119
  •        Proprioception.................................................................................................. 119
  •        Tickle and Itch................................................................................................... 119
  •        Thermal Senses................................................................................................ 119
  •        Two-Point Discrimination............................................................................... 120
  •        Epicritic sensibility or localisation.................................................................. 120
  •        Topognosis (localisation of stimuli)............................................................... 121
  •        Pain or Nociception.............................................................................................. 121
  •        The Gating Theory............................................................................................ 124
  •        Somatic Pain............................................................................................................... 124
  •        Visceral Pain........................................................................................................... 124
  •        Referred Pain.................................................................................................... 124
  •        Transmission..................................................................................................... 126
  •        Lateral Inhibition.............................................................................................. 128
  •        Analgesia........................................................................................................... 128
  •        Analgesic Substances............................................................................................ 128
  •        Opiate Peptides ............................................................................................... 128
  •        Effect of Acetylcholine on Pain .................................................................... 129
  •        Cannabinoids in Pain Relief............................................................................ 129
  •        Pain Suppression in the Brain and Spinal Cord ........................................... 129
  •        Clinical Aspects ............................................................................................... 130
  •        Neuropathic Pain................................................................................................... 131
  •        Sensory Symptoms of Spinal Cord Diseases................................................ 132
  •        Cortical Representation.................................................................................. 132
  •        Clinical Aspects................................................................................................ 133
  •        REFERENCES.......................................................................................................... 134
  • Chapter 8. PHYSIOLOGY OF VISION (T. Yörükan)
  •        Structure of the Eye............................................................................................... 137
  •        The Sclera.......................................................................................................... 138
  •        The Choroid...................................................................................................... 140
  •        The Retina......................................................................................................... 142
  •        The Optical System of the Eye- the first function of the eye........................ 146
  •        Lens strength and normal vision................................................................... 148
  •        Near Point Convergence Reflex.................................................................... 150
  •        Visual Fixation Reflex....................................................................................... 150
  •        Binocular Vision ............................................................................................... 150
  •        Visual Acuity...................................................................................................... 151
  •        Physiologic Mechanisms in Vision - the second step in vision.................. 151
  •        Scotopic Vision...................................................................................................... 152
  •        Photopic Vision..................................................................................................... 152
  •        Photochemical and Bioelectric Processes in Scotopic vision................... 152
  •        Mechanism of Excitation................................................................................. 153
  •        Physiologic Nystagmus................................................................................... 156
  •        Colour Vision......................................................................................................... 156
  •        Transmission of signals from the retina to the Visual centres ................. 158
  •        Lesions at different levels of the Optic tract .............................................. 161
  •        Eye movements .............................................................................................. 162
  •        Visual Field and Perimeter.............................................................................. 162
  •        Scotoma............................................................................................................. 162
  •        REFERENCES.......................................................................................................... 163
  • Chapter 9. AUDITORY PHYSIOLOGY (T. Yörükan)
  •        Perilymph and Endolymph............................................................................. 171
  •        Sound - Physical characteristics........................................................................ 171
  •        The Decibel ...................................................................................................... 172
  •        Summary of the Auditory process..................................................................... 172
  •        Cochlear Sound Transmission........................................................................ 172
  •        Place Theory of Cochlear Function............................................................... 175
  •        Transmission to the Auditory Cortex................................................................ 176
  •        The Types of Hearing Loss.................................................................................. 177
  •        Equilibrium............................................................................................................ 177
  •        Disturbances of Balance................................................................................. 181
  •        REFERENCES.......................................................................................................... 181
  • Chapter 10. CHEMICAL SENSES OF TASTE AND SMELL OR GUSTATION AND OLFACTION (T. Yörükan)
  •        Taste or Gustation................................................................................................. 185
  •        General mechanism of stimulation............................................................... 186
  •        Localisation....................................................................................................... 188
  •        Transmission......................................................................................................... 189
  •        Smell or Olfaction................................................................................................. 190
  •        Vomeronasal Organ......................................................................................... 191
  •        Mechanism of Excitation................................................................................. 192
  •        Sensation modalities....................................................................................... 192
  •        Transmission......................................................................................................... 193
  •        Disturbances of Olfaction............................................................................... 195
  •        REFERENCES.......................................................................................................... 195
  • Chapter 11. AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM (T. Yörükan)
  •        Sympathetic Division........................................................................................... 200
  •        Parasympathetic Division................................................................................... 201
  •        Synapses.................................................................................................................. 202
  •        Autonomic Transmitters................................................................................. 202
  •        Sympathetic postganglionic fibre Effector Organ Synapse....................... 204
  •        Regulation of Norepinephrine Release and Synthesis.............................. 204
  •        Adrenergic Receptors..................................................................................... 204
  •        Alpha Receptors............................................................................................... 205
  •        Beta Receptors................................................................................................. 205
  •        Acetylcholine Receptors................................................................................. 206
  •        Denervation Hypersensitivity............................................................................ 207
  •        Responses in Effector Organs............................................................................. 207
  •        The actions of sympathetic nerves on effector organs............................. 207
  •        Actions of Parasympathetic Nerves on Effector Organs............................ 209
  •        Cranial Division..................................................................................................... 209
  •        Responses of Effectors to Autonomic Nerve Impulses................................. 210
  •        Autonomic reflexes......................................................................................... 212
  •        Central Control of Autonomic functions........................................................... 213
  •        REFERENCES.......................................................................................................... 214
  • Chapter 12. MOTOR FUNCTIONS OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (L. Pinar)
  •        Three Main Levels of the Central Nervous System Involved in Motor Functions 217
  •        Spinal cord (Medulla Spinalis) Level.............................................................. 217
  •        Lower Brain Level............................................................................................ 217
  •        Upper Brain Level, Cortical Level.................................................................. 218
  •        The Simplest Motor Activities Of the Spinal Cord.......................................... 219
  •        Stretch Reflex................................................................................................... 219
  •        The Effect of the Gamma Motor Neurons.................................................... 222
  •        Reciprocal Innervation and Inhibition........................................................... 223
  •        Golgi Tendon Reflex........................................................................................ 223
  •        Pathological Reflexes...................................................................................... 225
  •        Withdrawal Reflex (Flexion Reflex)............................................................... 225
  •        Spinal Shock...................................................................................................... 226
  •        Brown Sequard Syndrome ............................................................................. 227
  •        Mass Reflex....................................................................................................... 227
  •        Clinical Aspects..................................................................................................... 229
  •        Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (Motor Neuron Disease)............................ 229
  •        Brainstem and Reticular Formation.................................................................. 230
  •        Reticular Facilitatory (Excitatory) Area.......................................................... 230
  •        Reticular Inhibitory Area................................................................................. 231
  •        Functions of the Neocortex................................................................................. 232
  •        Cerebral Dominance ...................................................................................... 232
  •        Control of Motor Functions................................................................................. 234
  •        Motor Areas in the Cerebral Cortex ............................................................. 235
  •        Primary Motor Cortex ..................................................................................... 235
  •        Premotor Cortex.............................................................................................. 236
  •        Supplementary Motor Cortex........................................................................ 236
  •        Somatic Sensory Area in Motor activity........................................................ 237
  •        Initiation of the Motor Commands by the Cerebral Cortex...................... 237
  •        Control of the Axial and Distal Muscles of the Body..................................... 238
  •        Corticospinal Tracts............................................................................................. 240
  •        Lateral Corticospinal Tract (Pyramidal tract)................................................ 240
  •        Anterior (Ventral) Corticospinal Tract .......................................................... 241
  •        Corticobulbar Tract.......................................................................................... 242
  •        Rubrospinal Tract.............................................................................................. 242
  •        Extrapyramidal System (Ventromedial System Tracts) .............................. 243
  •        Pontine Reticulospinal Tract (tr. Reticulospinalis medialis)....................... 243
  •        Medullary Reticulospinal Tract (tr. Reticulospinalis lateralis).................... 243
  •        Medial and Lateral Vestibulospinal Tracts.................................................... 243
  •        Tectospinal Tract.............................................................................................. 244
  •        The Inhibitory Areas of Central Nervous System ....................................... 244
  •        Decerebrate Rigidity....................................................................................... 245
  •        Decorticate Rigidity (Spasticity)..................................................................... 246
  •        Lower and Upper Motor Neurons and Their Lesions ................................ 246
  •        Lesions of Cortical Areas................................................................................. 247
  •        Cerebral Palsy (CP).......................................................................................... 249
  •        Impairment of the Sensorimotor Integration ............................................. 249
  •        Basal Ganglia.......................................................................................................... 250
  •        Direct Tract ....................................................................................................... 252
  •        Indirect Tract..................................................................................................... 252
  •        Neuronal Circuits of the Basal Ganglia............................................................. 253
  •        Putamen Circuit............................................................................................... 253
  •        Caudate Circuit................................................................................................. 254
  •        Metabolic Properties of the Basal Ganglia................................................... 255
  •        Clinical Aspects..................................................................................................... 255
  •        Huntington’s disease....................................................................................... 255
  •        Parkinson’s Disease (Paralysis Agitans)........................................................ 256
  •        Cerebellum.............................................................................................................. 257
  •        Function............................................................................................................. 257
  •        Afferent Tracts to the Cerebellum from the Brain .................................... 259
  •        Afferent Tracts to the Cerebellum from the Periphery............................. 259
  •        Efferent Tracts from the Cerebellum............................................................ 260
  •        Functional Unit of the Cerebellum............................................................... 260
  •        Function of the Lateral Hemispheres........................................................... 262
  •        Romberg Test................................................................................................... 262
ISBN9786059354684
Basım Yılı2017
Basım Sayısı1
Sayfa Sayısı332 sayfa
Editör(ler)Lamia Pınar,Thelma Yörükan
BISACMED075000

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VadeAylıkToplam
156,00 TL56,00 TL
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414,97 TL59,88 TL
512,08 TL60,41 TL
610,16 TL60,94 TL
VadeAylıkToplam
156,00 TL56,00 TL
229,41 TL58,81 TL
319,78 TL59,34 TL
414,97 TL59,88 TL
512,08 TL60,41 TL
610,16 TL60,94 TL

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